Volume 138, Issue 7, pages 1557–1562, 1 April 2016
- Towards personalized screening: Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes in women with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (pages 1619–1625)Theodora Maria Ripping, Rebecca A. Hubbard, Johannes D.M. Otten, Gerard J. den Heeten, André L.M. Verbeek and Mireille J.M. Broeders
Breast cancer screening is shifting away from a one-size-fits-all approach, where age determines mammography frequency, to personalized approaches, which balance the benefits and harms of mammographic screening. This study shows that women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer are more likely to have favorable and unfavorable screening outcomes than women without a family history of the disease. Women with a family history had a higher chance of small invasive cancers being detected but also were at increased risk of interval cancers and false-positives. The findings emphasize the need for careful benefit-harm assessment in mammographic screening.
- Clinicopathological and molecular alterations in early gastric cancers with the microsatellite instability-high phenotype (pages 1689–1697)Ryo Sugimoto, Tamotsu Sugai, Wataru Habano, Masaki Endoh, Makoto Eizuka, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Noriyuki Uesugi, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tomonori Kawasaki, Takayuki Matsumoto and Hiromu Suzuki
The relevance of the clinicopathological and molecular features of early gastric cancers with the microsatellite instability (MSI)-high phenotype remains to be clarified in sporadic gastric carcinogenesis. This study shows that early gastric cancers with the MSI-high phenotype exhibit distinct histological features and accumulation of both genomic damage and MSI within the same tumors. In regions with genomic damage, the frequencies of 3p and 22q AI were significantly higher in the MSI-high phenotype than in the microsatellite stable phenotype. The treatment strategies for patients with gastric cancers having the MSI-high phenotype may thus need to differ from patients with colorectal cancer.
- High hemoglobin A1c levels within the non-diabetic range are associated with the risk of all cancers (pages 1741–1753)Atsushi Goto, Mitsuhiko Noda, Norie Sawada, Masayuki Kato, Akihisa Hidaka, Tetsuya Mizoue, Taichi Shimazu, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Shizuka Sasazuki, Manami Inoue, Takashi Kadowaki, Shoichiro Tsugane and for the JPHC Study Group
Diabetes and cancer share a positive association, yet the relationship between cancer risk and the most reliable blood glucose marker, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), remains unclear. This large-scale prospective study with strictly standardized HbA1c values in a Japanese population, which was cancer-free at baseline, shows that elevated HbA1c levels are significantly associated with risk for all reported cancer sites in both sexes, independent of potential confounding factors. The findings support the idea that glycemic control is key to cancer prevention in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals with high HbA1c levels.