Bradbury, K.E., Murphy, N., Key, T. | 2019| Diet and colorectal cancer in UK Biobank: a prospective study| International Journal of Epidemiology| dyz064| https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz064
A research team behind a study into diet and the impact of diet on colorectal cancer used data from the UK Biobank research project in conjunction with questionnaires to learn about the dietary habits of men and women aged between 40- 69 years and their potential risk of developing colorectal cancer.
At follow up five years later the participants who had consumed (on average) 76g of red meat, compared to 21g, had a higher risk of developing cancer than other participants.
Participants who ate red meat on four or more occasions a week had a fifth increased risk of developing colorectal cancer compared with subjects who ate red meat twice weekly.
Subjects who consumed the most wholegrains had a 14% lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.
Previous studies have found an increased risk of colorectal cancer in those with high intakes of red and processed meat. Most previous studies collected information on dietary intakes during the 1990s or earlier and patterns in meat consumption have since changed.
In addition, few studies have used re-measured intakes to reduce the impact of measurement error, and to quantify the amount of red and processed meat that is associated with an increased risk. Measurement error generally biases the associations towards the null value; the associations observed in previous studies that did not re-measure intakes may be underestimated.
Our study found that people who were consuming red and processed meat four or more times per week, had a 20% increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with those who were consuming red and processed meat less than twice a week.
Most of the previous studies on diet and colorectal cancer were based on diets consumed during the 1990s.
We used Cox-regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for colorectal cancer by dietary factors in the UK Biobank study. Men and women aged 40–69 years at recruitment (2006–10) reported their diet on a short food-frequency questionnaire (n = 475 581). Dietary intakes were re-measured in a large sub-sample (n = 175 402) who completed an online 24-hour dietary assessment during follow-up. Trends in risk across the baseline categories were calculated by assigning re-measured intakes to allow for measurement error and changes in intake over time.
During an average of 5.7 years of follow-up, 2609 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. Participants who reported consuming an average of 76 g/day of red and processed meat compared with 21 g/day had a 20% higher risk of colorectal cancer. Participants in the highest fifth of intake of fibre from bread and breakfast cereals had a 14% lower risk of colorectal cancer. Alcohol was associated with an 8% higher risk per 10 g/day higher intake. Fish, poultry, cheese, fruit, vegetables, tea and coffee were not associated with colorectal-cancer risk.
Consumption of red and processed meat at an average level of 76 g/d that meets the current UK government recommendation (less than or equal to 90 g/day) was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Alcohol was also associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, whereas fibre from bread and breakfast cereals was associated with a reduced risk.
NHS England | April 2019 | 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed-tomography (PET CT) as part of radical radiotherapy treatment planning for oesophageal cancer (all ages)
NHS England will not routinely commission 18F-FDG-PET CT as part of radical radiotherapy treatment planning for oesophageal cancer in accordance with the criteria outlined in this document.
In creating this policy NHS England has reviewed this clinical condition and the options for its treatment. It has considered the place of this treatment in current clinical practice, whether scientific research has shown the treatment to be of benefit to patients, (including how any benefit is balanced against possible risks) and whether its use represents the best use of NHS resources (Source: NHS England).
Further details including the evidence review, evidence report and clinical panel report are available from NHS England.
The Institute of Cancer Research | April 2019 | Can we cure cancer?
A new blog post on The Institute of Cancer Research outlines nine challenges that scientists say need to be overcome to potentially cure cancer at the recent conference The Challenges Preventing Cancer Cure at the Francis Crick Institute
The challenges are:
Analyse cancer in the fourth dimension
Account for cancer’s complexity in trial design
Accept that attempting ‘cure’ may not be best for everyone
NHS England | | April 2019 | Waiting times for suspected and diagnosed cancer patients for February 2019
These reports present the validated results of the monitoring of waiting times for cancer services in England and the information on the number of people who attended outpatient appointments within two weeks of an urgent referral by their GP for suspected cancer or breast symptoms and, for patients with cancer, on the numbers who started treatment within 31 and 62 days are included for each organisation. The numbers who started some types of subsequent treatments within 31 days are also given for each organisation. Numbers of patients who were not seen or treated within the specified times are also included (Source: NHS England).
Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology | April 2019 | Advances in Cancer Treatment
The latest POSTnote from the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology gives an overview of recent advances in cancer treatment, the potential benefits and risks, and considers the opportunities and challenges to using new technologies in the NHS.
New cancer treatment technologies have shown promising results in clinical trials, particularly for difficult-to-treat cancers.
Significant progress has been made in cancer immunotherapies for specific cancers and patient populations. Research into the use of these therapies for other cancers and patients is ongoing.
Advances in radiotherapy include improved imaging and precision, proton beam therapy and molecular radiotherapy, all of which have also shown positive clinical results.
Combination therapies, which combine different types of immunotherapy, or drug and radiotherapies, are a priority for current and future research.
New therapies require specialised knowledge and resources; stakeholders agree that they should be delivered as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary care package.