Localized immunotherapy new possibility to treat bladder cancer

New findings from IGP show an alternative way to administer the therapy, which has the same effect on the tumour but less impact other parts of the body | ScienceDaily

Photomicrograph botyroidal rhabdomyoscarcoma of the bladder
Image source: Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Image shows photomicrograph (magnification X60) of botyroidal rhabdomyoscarcoma of the bladder

In the study immune activation was achieved by administering blocking antibodies close to the tumour. The results complement the researcher’s previous findings where they found that a direct immune stimulatory antibody had superior anti-tumour capacity when used locally at the tumour, as compared to after injection into the blood.

The hope is also that the immune cells, not the drug itself, can find potential metastases and eliminate them. To understand if and how this is happening, further research is required. The present results are based on studies in mice and to determine if drug administration to the tumour results in fewer adverse events in patients, as compared to injections into the blood stream, clinical studies are also needed.

Read the full overview here

Read the original research abstract here

Patterns of Referral to Radiation Oncology among Patients with Bladder Cancer

Quirt, J. S. et al. Clinical Oncology. Published online: 6 November 2016

https://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?_IXMAXHITS_=1&_IXACTION_=query&_IXFIRST_=5&_IXSR_=5mQj60183wi&_IXSS_=_IXMAXHITS_%3d15%26_IXFPFX_%3dtemplates%252ft%26_IXFIRST_%3d1%26c%3d%2522historical%2bimages%2522%2bOR%2b%2522contemporary%2bimages%2522%2bOR%2b%2522corporate%2bimages%2522%2bOR%2b%2522contemporary%2bclinical%2bimages%2522%26%252asform%3dwellcome%252dimages%26%2524%253dsi%3dtext%26_IXACTION_%3dquery%26i_pre%3d%26IXTO%3d%26t%3d%26_IXINITSR_%3dy%26i_num%3d%26%2524%253dsort%3dsort%2bsortexpr%2bimage_sort%26w%3d%26%2524%253ds%3dbladder%2bcancer%26IXFROM%3d%26_IXSUBMIT_%3dSubmit%26_IXshc%3dy%26%2524%2b%2528%2528with%2bwi_sfgu%2bis%2bY%2529%2band%2bnot%2b%2528%2522contemporary%2bclinical%2bimages%2522%2bindex%2bwi_collection%2bor%2b%2522corporate%2bimages%2522%2bindex%2bwi_collection%2529%2529%2band%2bnot%2bwith%2bsys_deleted%3d%252e%26_IXrescount%3d8&_IXSPFX_=templates%2ft&_IXFPFX_=templates%2ft
Image source: Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Image shows photomicrograph of adenocarcinoma of the bladder

Highlights:

  • Guidelines support either cystectomy or radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer.
  • This population-based study describes referral patterns to radiation oncology.
  • One third of patients with bladder cancer were referred to radiation oncology.
  • Only 10% of patients were seen by radiation oncology postoperatively.
  • Closer collaboration between radiation oncology and urology is warranted.

Read the abstract here

Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A systematic review

Chou, R. et al. Cancer: Article first published online 15th Jan 2016

There is uncertainty regarding the use of bladder-sparing alternatives to standard radical cystectomy, optimal lymph node dissection techniques, and optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. This study was conducted to systematically review the benefits and harms of bladder-sparing therapies, lymph node dissection, and systemic chemotherapy for patients with clinically localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE (from 1990 through October 2014), the Cochrane databases, reference lists, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Web site were performed. A total of 41 articles were selected for review.

Bladder-sparing therapies were found to be associated with worse survival compared with radical cystectomy, although the studies had serious methodological shortcomings, findings were inconsistent, and only a few studies evaluated currently recommended techniques.More extensive lymph node dissection might be more effective than less extensive dissection at improving survival and decreasing local disease recurrence, but there were methodological shortcomings and some inconsistency.Six randomized trials found cisplatin-based combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy to be associated with a decreased mortality risk versus cystectomy alone. Four randomized trials found adjuvant chemotherapy to be associated with decreased mortality versus cystectomy alone, but none of these trials reported a statistically significant effect. There was insufficient evidence to determine optimal chemotherapeutic regimens.

View the article abstract here

Urine test could lead to better treatment of bladder cancer

Researchers at the University of Birmingham believe that a simple urine test could help to guide clinicians in the treatment of bladder cancer patients. Being able to reliably identify those patients with the most aggressive cancers early via urine tests, and expediting aggressive therapeutic strategies, may significantly improve outcomes. The scientists believe that the validation of two urinary biomarkers could spell a new way of tailoring treatment. Patient management has changed little over the last three decades, so it is hoped that this research, published in British Journal of Cancer, will prove to be a step forward for the field with a view to providing improved care for each patient.

Link to the research: Bryan, R.T et al. Protein shedding in urothelial bladder cancer: prognostic implications of soluble urinary EGFR and EpCAM.  British Journal of Cancer Advance online Feb 2015