Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality | The British Journal of Psychiatry
Aims: To summarise available evidence and quantify the association between schizophrenia and cancer mortality using meta-analysis.
Method: We systematically searched literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals reported in individual studies were pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model.
Results: We included 19 studies in the meta-analysis. Among them, 15 studies reported standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing patients with schizophrenia with the general population, and the pooled SMR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.29–1.52, P<0.001). The other four studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) comparing individuals with schizophrenia with those without schizophrenia; the pooled HR was 1.51 (95% CI 1.13–2.03, P = 0.006).
Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia are at a significantly increased risk of cancer mortality compared with the general population or individuals without schizophrenia.
Full reference: Zhuo, C. et al. (2017) Cancer mortality in patients with schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Published online: 8 June 2017.
Howard Sharp, K.M. Cancer. Published online: 4 May 2017
Background: The medical traumatic stress model is commonly applied to childhood cancer, assuming that the diagnosis of cancer is a traumatic event. However, to the authors’ knowledge, little is known regarding what specifically children perceive as stressful about cancer or how it compares with other stressful events more often experienced by children.
Conclusions: Children do not necessarily view their cancer experience as their most stressful life event. The findings of the current study suggest that the diagnosis of cancer might be better viewed as a manageable stressor rather than a major trauma, and are consistent with the change in the fifth edition of the DSM to eliminate the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness as a qualifying trauma for PTSD.
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Liang, X. et al. Cancer | Published online: 7 April 2017
Background: Few previous studies investigating depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer–specific mortality have examined depression measured at more than 1 time point. This study investigated the effect of depression (combining depressive symptoms alone with antidepressant use) measured at 2 time points before the diagnosis of breast cancer on all-cause mortality and breast cancer–specific mortality among older postmenopausal women.
Conclusions: Women with newly developed depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer had a modestly but significantly increased risk for death from any cause and for death from breast cancer at a late stage.
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Grossert, A. et al. BMC Cancer. Published online: 3 November 2016
Background: Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients.
Methods/design: In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist (“minimal-contact”) based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients’ characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program.
Discussion: New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often comparable to face-to-face interventions. With our study we open this field to the population of newly diagnosed cancer patients. We will not only assess clinical efficacy but also further refine the target population who has the most potential to benefit. An internet-based minimal-contact stress management program might be an attractive, time- and cost-effective way to effectively deliver psychological support to newly diagnosed cancer patients and an opportunity to include those who currently are not reached by conventional support.
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Björkhem-Bergman, L. & Bergman, P. (2016) BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. 6:287-291
Vitamin D is a hormone that is synthesised in the skin in the presence of sunlight. Sufficient vitamin D levels are important—not only for a healthy skeleton—but also for a healthy immune system. Many patients with cancer have insufficient vitamin D levels, and low vitamin D levels are associated with increased ‘all-cause mortality’ and especially mortality due to cancer. Low vitamin D levels have also been associated with increased risk of infections, increased pain, depressive disorders and impaired quality of life.
We review the role of vitamin D in the immune system, in relation to cancer disease, pain and depression. We have recently performed an observational study in 100 patients with palliative cancer in Sweden. The main result was that low vitamin D levels were associated with higher opioid dose, that is, more pain. We also describe a case report where vitamin D supplementation resulted in radically decreased opioid dose, less pain and better well-being.
Vitamin D supplementation is not connected with any adverse side effects and is easy to administrate. Thus, we hypothesise that vitamin D-supplementation to patients with palliative cancer might be beneficial and could improve their well-being, decrease pain and reduce susceptibility to infections. However, more clinical studies in this field are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.
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Lo, C. et al. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. Published Online First: 19 January 2016
Background: Managing Cancer And Living Meaningfully (CALM) is a brief individual psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer. In an intervention-only phase 2a trial, CALM showed promising results, leading to the present 2b pilot, which introduces procedures for randomisation and improved rigour in preparation for a phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT).
Aims: To test trial methodology and assess feasibility of a confirmatory RCT.
Design: A parallel-arm RCT (intervention vs usual care) with 3 and 6-month follow-ups. Assessment of feasibility included rates of consent, randomisation, attrition, intervention non-compliance and usual care contamination. Primary outcome: depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9). Secondary outcomes: major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety, death anxiety, spiritual well-being, attachment anxiety and avoidance, self-esteem, experiential avoidance, quality of life and post-traumatic growth. Bayesian conjugate analysis was used in this low-powered setting.
Setting/participants: 60 adult patients with advanced cancer from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre.
Results: Rate of consent was 32%, randomisation 78%, attrition 25%, non-compliance 37% and contamination 17%. There was support for potential treatment effects on: PHQ-9, OR=1.48, 95% Credible Interval (CRI.95) (0.65, 3.38); MDD, OR=1.56, CRI.95 (0.50, 4.84); attachment anxiety, OR=1.72, CRI.95 (0.73, 4.03); and attachment avoidance, OR=1.58, CRI.95 (0.67, 3.71). There was no support for effects on the seven remaining secondary outcomes.
Conclusions: A phase 3 CALM RCT is feasible and should aim to detect effect sizes of d=0.40, with greater attention to issues of compliance and contamination.
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A new report calls attention to cancer in people with mental illness, suggesting that healthcare system and societal factors are just as critical as individual lifestyle factors– linked to smoking and obesity–that lead to health disparities among this group.
Reports indicate that nearly one in five adults (18.6%) suffered some form of any mental illness in the last year, and almost 10 million U.S. adults (4.1% of the population) had a serious mental illness (such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) in the past year. Despite the high prevalence of mental illness among adults, widespread recognition of the significant health disparities experienced by this population has occurred only in the last decade. People with mental illness die decades earlier compared with the general population, with most of the disparity the result of preventable and treatable chronic conditions, including cancer.
Find the original article here: Lara C. Weinstein, et al. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2015
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