Researchers have developed a single blood test that screens for eight common cancer types and helps identify the location of the cancer | Via ScienceDaily | Science
A single blood test has been developed that screens for eight common cancer types and helps identify the location of the cancer. The test, called CancerSEEK, is a unique noninvasive, multianalyte test that simultaneously evaluates levels of eight cancer proteins and the presence of cancer gene mutations from circulating DNA in the blood. The test is aimed at screening for eight common cancer types that account for more than 60 percent of cancer deaths in the U.S. Five of the cancers covered by the test currently have no screening test.
The test was evaluated on 1,005 patients with nonmetastatic, stages I to III cancers of the ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, colorectum, lung or breast. The median overall sensitivity, or the ability to find cancer, was 70 percent and ranged from a high of 98 percent for ovarian cancer to a low of 33 percent for breast cancer. For the five cancers that have no screening tests — ovarian, liver, stomach, pancreatic and esophageal cancers — sensitivity ranged from 69 percent to 98 percent.
This report highlights lack of capacity for pathology services as a result of the increasing number of patient samples that need to be tested. The report recommends that action is taken now to address current and future workforce shortfalls. It also recommends the Royal College of Pathologists should update their guidance and look at ways to attract staff to train in pathology.
Image shows colour lithograph of endoscopy operations.
GPs should have direct access to a wider range of tests for people with suspected cancer including diagnostic endoscopy, ultrasound, x ray, and scans, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has recommended in a new quality standard aiming to speed up cancer diagnosis.
The quality standard sets out measures the NHS should include in planning and delivering services. In addition to recommending that GPs have direct access to ultrasound, x ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) scans, it says that they should be able to directly refer people with symptoms suggestive of oesophageal or stomach cancer for urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
After reviewing relevant research evidence NICE says that GPs should be able to refer patients of any age with dysphagia and those aged over 55 with weight loss and upper abdominal pain, reflux, or dyspepsia for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. This test should be performed and results sent back to the GP within two weeks of the request.
By collecting samples from the portal vein–which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, including from the pancreas, to the liver–physicians can learn far more about a patient’s pancreatic cancer than by relying on peripheral blood from a more easily accessed vein in the arm.
Daniel V.T. Catenacci, Christopher G. Chapman, Peng Xu, Ann Koons, Vani J. Konda, Uzma D. Siddiqui, Irving Waxman. Acquisition of Portal Venous Circulating Tumor Cells From Patients With Pancreaticobiliary Cancers by Endoscopic Ultrasound.Gastroenterology, 2015; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.08.050
Measuring changes in the level of a protein in the blood detects more cases of ovarian cancer than a single measurement on its own, according to the research team behind a large screening trial.
The new method, detailed in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, appears to be able to detect twice as many women with the disease than existing techniques, and could ultimately lead to routine ovarian screening.
But experts cautioned that the overall results of the trial need analysing before they will know for sure whether screening can reduce deaths from ovarian cancer.
Levels of the CA125 protein have long been used to test for ovarian cancer, but converting this knowledge into a reliable screening test has proved elusive.
The team, led by researchers at University College London (UCL), developed a calculation of ovarian cancer risk based on changing levels of the protein in women’s blood.
Researchers at the University of Birmingham believe that a simple urine test could help to guide clinicians in the treatment of bladder cancer patients. Being able to reliably identify those patients with the most aggressive cancers early via urine tests, and expediting aggressive therapeutic strategies, may significantly improve outcomes. The scientists believe that the validation of two urinary biomarkers could spell a new way of tailoring treatment. Patient management has changed little over the last three decades, so it is hoped that this research, published in British Journal of Cancer, will prove to be a step forward for the field with a view to providing improved care for each patient.
An experimental biopsy procedure appears to be more effective than the current tests in identifying ‘high-risk’ prostate cancers, according to a US clinical trial. If confirmed in larger studies, the results could lead to fewer men subsequently having more invasive tests that they may not need. ‘Targeted’ biopsies use a combination of ultrasound and MRI scans to try to ensure a more accurate sample, compared with the current biopsy method.