AI could help breast screening save more lives

Cancer Research UK |February 2020 |AI could help breast screening save more lives

A new blog post from Cancer Research details how artificial intelligence (AI) could help to save more lives in the identification of breast cancer. In collaboration with Google Health the leading cancer charity, has led on research to develop artificial intelligence that not only has the potential to change the way we detect breast cancer but could also save the NHS time and money.  Scientists from these organisation have created a database that contains more than 2000 mammograms (anonymised). The data can be used by academics and commercial partners to benefit patients (Source: Cancer Research UK

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Full details about the screening project and how it came to be are available from CRUK 

See also:

Cancer Research UK Artificial intelligence could help breast screening save more lives

OnMedica Artificial intelligence could help breast screening save more lives

Psychological Processes and Symptom Outcomes in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

Full reference: Chinh, K. | 2020| Psychological Processes and Symptom Outcomes in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study| Mindfulness | https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01299-0

A study that conducted secondary analyses to examine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for cancer-related fatigue on mindfulness facets, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility. The researchers also examined whether changes in these processes were associated with the symptom outcomes of fatigue interference, sleep disturbance, and emotional distress.

Abstract

Objectives

Growing evidence supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for symptoms in cancer survivors. Identifying theory-based psychological processes underlying their effects on symptoms would inform research to enhance their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. We conducted secondary analyses examining the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for cancer-related fatigue on mindfulness facets, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility. We also examined whether changes in these processes were associated with the symptom outcomes of fatigue interference, sleep disturbance, and emotional distress.

Methods

Thirty-five persistently fatigued cancer survivors (94% female, 77% breast cancer survivors) were randomized to either MBSR for cancer-related fatigue or a waitlist control (WC) condition. Self-report measures were administered at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 1-month follow-up. Then the WC group received MBSR and completed a post-intervention follow-up.

Results

Linear mixed modeling analyses of the first three time points showed steady increases over time for certain mindfulness facets (observing, acting with awareness, and nonjudging) and self-compassion in favor of the MBSR group. When analyzing pre- and post-intervention data across study conditions, none of the psychological processes predicted change in fatigue interference. However, increased nonjudging was associated with decreased sleep disturbance, and increased acting with awareness was associated with decreased emotional distress. Self-compassion did not predict change in symptom outcomes.

Conclusions

Results point to specific psychological processes that may be targeted to maximize the efficacy of future MBSR interventions for cancer survivors.

Rotherham NHS staff can have a copy of this article, just contact RFT Library here 

 

Breast screening programme

Breast Screening Programme, England 2018-19 | NHS Digital |  30 January 2020

Women between the ages of 50 and 70 are invited for regular breast screening (every three years) under a national programme. Screening is intended to reduce mortality by detecting breast cancer at an early stage when there is a better chance of successful treatment.

This report presents information about the NHS Breast Screening Programme in England in 2018-19 and includes data on women invited for breast screening, coverage, uptake of invitations, outcomes of screening and cancers detected.

The publication also features an online interactive dashboard to complement the existing publication resources.

Full report: Breast Screening Programme England, 2018-19 | NHS Digital

Further detail at NHS Digital

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer | NICE guideline [NG151] | January 2020

This guideline covers managing colorectal (bowel) cancer in people aged 18 and over. It aims to improve quality of life and survival for adults with colorectal cancer through management of local disease and management of secondary tumours (metastatic disease).

Recommendations

This guideline includes recommendations on:

See also: Colorectal cancer (Quality Standard 20, updated from Aug 2012)

BMJ: CT screening in former or current smokers can significantly reduce mortality by almost a quarter

Mayor, S. |2020| Lung cancer: CT screening in former or current smokers significantly reduces mortality, study finds| BMJ  |368 |doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m347

The findings of a large randomised controlled trial, now published in the NEJM, demonstrate that regular computed tomographic (CT) screening in current and former smokers reduces lung cancer mortality by around a quarter at 10 years.

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The NELSON study included more than 13 000 men and 2 500 women aged between 50 and 74 from the Netherlands and Belgium. All of the subjects were current or former smokers, with a median smoking history of 38.0 pack years (interquartile range 29.7 pack years to 49.5 pack years) among male participants. Less than half  (44.9%) of the men in the study were former smokers.

Results showed that deaths from lung cancer were nearly a quarter (24%)  lower after 10 years of follow-up in men undergoing regular CT screening than in those not screened . Lung cancer deaths decreased from 3.3 deaths per 1000 person years in the control group to 2.5 deaths per 1000 person years in men who were screened (Source: Mayor, 2020).

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There are limited data from randomized trials regarding whether volume-based, low-dose computed tomographic (CT) screening can reduce lung-cancer mortality among male former and current smokers.

METHODS

A total of 13,195 men (primary analysis) and 2594 women (subgroup analyses) between the ages of 50 and 74 were randomly assigned to undergo CT screening at T0 (baseline), year 1, year 3, and year 5.5 or no screening. We obtained data on cancer diagnosis and the date and cause of death through linkages with national registries in the Netherlands and Belgium, and a review committee confirmed lung cancer as the cause of death when possible. A minimum follow-up of 10 years until December 31, 2015, was completed for all participants.

RESULTS

Among men, the average adherence to CT screening was 90.0%. On average, 9.2% of the screened participants underwent at least one additional CT scan (initially indeterminate). The overall referral rate for suspicious nodules was 2.1%. At 10 years of follow-up, the incidence of lung cancer was 5.58 cases per 1000 person-years in the screening group and 4.91 cases per 1000 person-years in the control group; lung-cancer mortality was 2.50 deaths per 1000 person-years and 3.30 deaths per 1000 person-years, respectively. The cumulative rate ratio for death from lung cancer at 10 years was 0.76 in the screening group as compared with the control group, similar to the values at years 8 and 9. Among women, the rate ratio was 0.67 at 10 years of follow-up, with values of 0.41 to 0.52 in years 7 through 9.

CONCLUSIONS

In this trial involving high-risk persons, lung-cancer mortality was significantly lower among those who underwent volume CT screening than among those who underwent no screening. There were low rates of follow-up procedures for results suggestive of lung cancer. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization of Health Research and Development and others; NELSON Netherlands Trial Register number, NL580. opens in new tab.)

Interested in this study? Ask the Library & Knowledge Service to provide you with a copy here

 

Cervical cancer could be eliminated says NHS England

Hundreds of lives will be spared every year in England thanks to a more sensitive cervical screening test rolled out as part of the NHS Long Term Plan | via NHS England

NHS experts said that there is “potential” to eliminate cervical cancer completely thanks to the change in primary test within the NHS Cervical Cancer Screening Programme, combined with the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine.

The new and more sensitive test now looks for traces of high risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Any tests that are HPV positive are then checked for abnormal changes of the cervix.

HPV is a group of viruses with more than 100 types, but 14 types can cause cervical cancer as well as some head and neck cancers. It means that any sign of infection will be spotted at an earlier stage before it could potentially develop into cancer.

Since the beginning of December, every part of the country has had the new way of screening in place. There are 2,500 new cases of cervical cancer in England every year but research says that a quarter of those could be prevented with this new way of testing.

The introduction is part of the NHS Long Term Plan’s ambitions to catch tens of thousands more cancers earlier, when it is easier to treat and the chance of survival is higher.

Full detail “Potential to eliminate” cervical cancer in England thanks to NHS Long Term Plan  | NHS England

Multi-disciplinary team meetings: cancer care

This guidance sets out how Multi-Disciplinary Teams (MDTs) can provide the most effective clinical management by focussing on patients with the most complex needs | NHS England | NHS Improvement

This guidance has been developed to enable cancer multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs) to respond to the changing landscape in cancer care, as recognised in the NHS Long Term Plan and the Independent Cancer Taskforce Report.

The guidance sets out how MDT Meetings (MDTMs) can continue to provide effective clinical management by remaining focussed on discussion of those patient cases which require full multidisciplinary input. This approach aims to support MDTMs in three ways:

  • Firstly, it should help to ensure there is adequate time for discussion of cases where it is  needed, by allowing more focus on complex cases in the MDTM.
  • Secondly, streamlining should ensure that valuable diagnostic and clinical time is used most effectively by creating more flexibility in management of the MDTM.
  • Thirdly, the policy will increase the transparency and consistency of care by agreeing the treatment or care any patient should expect to receive across Cancer Alliances.

Streamlining Multi-Disciplinary Team Meetings – Guidance for Cancer Alliances | NHS England | NHS Improvement