Little evidence for any direct impact of national cancer policies on short-term survival in England and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. Findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem. | London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine | British Medical Journal
New research from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine found that despite overall improvements in cancer survival, the gap in survival between the most affluent and most deprived groups of patients remains unchanged for most cancers.
Survival trends were examined for 21 cancers in men and 20 cancers in women.
For each cancer, the chances of survival at one year after diagnosis were estimated separately for men and women in five levels of socio-economic deprivation, from the most affluent to the most deprived, and in each of the three calendar periods.
Researchers focused on one-year survival because most of the inequalities in cancer survival in England arise shortly after diagnosis. The survival estimates were corrected for the risk of dying from other causes of death. Estimates were also adjusted for differences in the age profile of cancer patients between men and women, and over time.
The “deprivation gap” in survival between the most affluent and most deprived groups of patients remained unchanged for most cancers. There was a clear and persistent pattern of lower survival among more deprived patients. It narrowed slightly for some cancers, where one-year survival was already more than 65% in 1996, such as cervical cancer and skin melanoma in men. By contrast, the deprivation gap in survival widened between the late 1990s and 2013 for brain tumours in men and lung cancer in women.
The Office for National Statistics and Public Health England have released statistics for Cancer diagnoses in England for 2016.
The main points are:
The number of new cases of cancer in England continues to rise and, in 2016, there were 303,135 cancers registered (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers); this is an increase of 3,212 from 2015 and is equivalent to 828 new cases being diagnosed each day during 2016.
More cancers were registered in males (155,019) than females (148,116) and across the majority of cancer sites, more males were diagnosed with cancer than females; this is a persistent feature of the data, as reported in previous cancer registration years.
The age-standardised incidence rates for newly diagnosed cancers were 663.4 per 100,000 males and 541.1 per 100,000 females; age-standardised rates for newly registered cases of cancer (incidence) were higher in males than females, which is a repeating trend of the data, as outlined in previous cancer registration statistics.
Breast (15.2%), prostate (13.4%), lung (12.7%) and colorectal (11.5%) cancers continue to account for over half of the cancer registrations in England for all ages combined.
Health at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators | Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development | OnMedica
A report from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has found that the UK has the sixth highest rate of adult obesity. The report looks at health indicators across its 100 member countries.
It shows that almost 27% of the adult population of the UK is obese, compared with the OECD average of 19.4%. The UK has a smoking prevalence of 16.1%, which is below the OECD average of 18.4%.
However average alcohol consumption per UK adult is higher than the OECD average, with consumption averaging at 9.5 litres per adult.
The report highlights cancer by way of an example of both the good progress made and continuing challenges. Cancer survival has improved over time, due in part to high screening rates. Breast and rectal cancer survival rates are now slightly higher than the OECD average, with, respectively, 85.6% and 62.5% of people diagnosed living for at least a further five years, versus 85% and 61% in the OECD as a whole. Both rose at a faster pace than average over the course of ten years. But bowel cancer survival is still below the OECD average (60% compared to 62.8%), and overall cancer mortality rates remain relatively high (222 deaths per 100 000 people, compared with an OECD average of 204).
Being diagnosed with cancer is now one of the most common life-changing events in people’s lives | Macmillan
There are more new cases of cancer each year than marriages in the UK, according to a new report from Macmillan Cancer Support.
The report, The C-Word: How we react to cancer today, reveals being diagnosed with cancer is one of the most common life-changing events in people’s lives. New analysis reveals:
Cancer is more common than new marriages: Latest figures show there are over 70,000 more new cases of cancer each year in UK than new marriages
Cancer is more common than women having their first child: Latest figures show there are almost 50,000 more new cases of cancer each in year in England and Wales than women giving birthto their first child
Cancer is as common as graduating: Latest figures show there are a similar number of undergraduate degrees awarded each year in the UK, compared with new cases of cancer.
Cancer affects many people at the “prime” of their life: More than 1.2 million people have been diagnosed with cancer under the age of 65 in the past 10 years, including more than 340,000 diagnosed in their 20s, 30s and 40s.
Cancer survival in England for specific cancer sites by age, sex and stage at diagnosis. | Office for National Statistics
Among the 25 cancers forming the National Statistics, 1-year survival was highest for melanoma of the skin in both men (97.1%) and women (98.5%) and 5-year survival was highest for testicular cancer in men (95.9%) and melanoma of the skin in women (93.9%).
Pancreatic cancer had the lowest 1-year survival for men (22.9%) and women (24.7%) and 5-year survival was the lowest for mesothelioma for men (5.5%) and women (3.4%).
Adults diagnosed with late cancer (stage 4) in 2015, which had already spread to other parts of the body, have lower 1-year survival compared with those diagnosed in the earliest stage (stage 1), with the lowest survival in lung cancer in men (17.1%) and women (21.6%).
Adults diagnosed with melanoma of the skin, prostate and breast cancer (women only) in the earliest stage (stage 1) now have 1-year survival that is comparable to the general population of the same age who have not been diagnosed with cancer.
For all childhood cancers combined, the general trend of increasing 5-year survival has continued for children (0 to 14 years), from 67.2% for those diagnosed in 1990 to 85.1% predicted for those children diagnosed in 2016; a similar increasing trend has been observed for 10-year survival.
The full document, Cancer survival in England: adult, stage at diagnosis and childhood – patients followed up to 2016 can be downloaded here
Cigarette smoking among adults including the proportion of people who smoke including demographic breakdowns, changes over time, and e-cigarettes. | Office for National Statistics
In 2016, of all adult survey respondents in the UK, 15.8% smoked which equates to around 7.6 million in the population.
Of the constituent countries, 15.5% of adults in England smoked; for Wales, this figure was 16.9%; Scotland, 17.7% and Northern Ireland, 18.1%.
In the UK, 17.7% of men were current smokers which was significantly higher in comparison with 14.1% of women.
Those aged 18 to 24 in the UK experienced the largest decline in smoking prevalence of 6.5 percentage points since 2010.
Among current smokers in Great Britain, men smoked 12.0 cigarettes each day on average whereas women smoked 11.0 cigarettes each day on average; these are some of the lowest levels observed since 1974.
In Great Britain, 5.6% of respondents in 2016 stated they currently used an e-cigarette in 2016, which equates to approximately 2.9 million people in the population.