Statistics from Cancer Research UK show that in 2015 there were around 2,500 new cases, and nearly 700 deaths attributable to cervical cancer, in England. The overall age standardised incidence rate has been declining since the 1990s, however incidence is increasing in younger women.
Cervical cancer is 99.8% preventable through the cervical screening and the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination programmes. A cervical screen collects cells from the cervix to be tested for abnormalities. In 2019, primary HPV testing will also be introduced as part of the screening process.
Most cases of cervical cancer are linked to HPV and the vaccine, currently offered by the NHS for free to girls aged 12 and 13 in UK schools, protects against the most of the virus strains responsible. The national HPV vaccination programme has successfully reduced infections of HPV type 16/18 in 16-21 year old women by 80%.
This report presents information about the NHS Cervical Screening Programme in England in 2016-17. It includes data on the call and recall system, on screening samples examined by pathology laboratories and on referrals to colposcopy clinics | NHS Digital
• At 31 March 2017, the percentage of eligible women (aged 25 to 64) who were recorded as screened adequately within the specified period was 72.0 per cent. This compares with 72.7 per cent at 31 March 2016 and 75.4 per cent at 31 March 2012.
• A total of 4.45 million women aged 25 to 64 were invited for screening in 2016-17, representing an increase of 5.6 per cent from 2015-16 when 4.21 million women were invited.
• In total, 3.18 million women aged 25 to 64 years were tested in 2016-17, an increase of 2.9 per cent from 2015-16 when 3.09 million women were tested.
• Of samples submitted by GPs and NHS Community Clinics, 94.8 per cent of test results were returned Negative.
• 8.8 per cent of patients did not attend colposcopy appointments and gave no prior warning.
Attendance for cervical screening has been falling year on year. This professional resource from Public Health England aims to address this decline in attendance by presenting recommendations that can help increase access to screening and awareness of cervical cancer.
Download the infographics, references and a shorter version of this publication here
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for local advanced cervical cancer. However, for elderly patients, studies are limited and the outcomes are controversial | BMC Cancer
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the elderly cervical cancer patients treated with radical RT or CCRT between January 2006 and December 2014. For external beam radiotherapy, 50Gy in 25 fractions or 50.4Gy in 28 fractions were delivered via 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with a dose of 30-36Gy in 5–7 fractions to point A. Concurrent chemotherapy regimens included weekly cisplatin and paclitaxel.
Conclusion: Elderly cervical cancer patients could tolerate radical RT and CCRT very well and get a favored survival. Compared with RT, CCRT could improve the survival of elder cervical cancer patients with similar nonhematological toxicity. CCRT should be considered in elderly cervical cancer patients.
Illustration showing an artists interpretation of a Cervical cancer cell
The NHS in England is introducing a “superior” test for cervical cancer, following a successful pilot programme. Experts say it is a switch that could pick up an extra 600 cancers a year.
Women invited for a routine smear test will now automatically be checked for an infection called HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), which has been strongly linked to cervical cancer. Until now, an HPV test has only been done if doctors noticed abnormal cells in the smear sample.
Public Health Minister for England Jane Ellison said: “These changes are a breakthrough in the way we test women for cervical disease. The new test is more accurate, more personal and will reduce anxiety among women.
Justin A. Bishop and Patrick K. Ha. Cancer. Published online: 17 March 2016
Image shows a high power view of squamous mucosa of the cervix, with mild abnormalities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
It is increasingly important to identify the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, because HPV status is now useful for clinical trial stratification, prognostic determination, diagnosis in patients with neck masses, and identification of the primary tumor site. Therefore, it is important that the technique used for identification be feasible, accurate, reproducible, and cost effective. The authors summarize these aspects of HPV detection and the use of newer digital polymerase chain reaction technology for this purpose.